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Safe Food Preparation Essay

Chapter 1



Having a good sanitation and safety operation is vital to any food service establishment, big or small. Sanitation literally means measures necessary for improving and protecting health and well being of the people. Inadequate sanitation is a major

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cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. Safety is the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Foodservice establishments feed hundreds of millions of people annually.

The customers in many of these establishments are young, at high risk, elderly, and ill. Care must be taken at all times to protect this vulnerable group of people. In every fast food restaurants, sanitation and safety are an essential part of operation that the customers looked for. By implementing sanitation and safety operation; it prevents the health risks of the customers, external and internal health. It can also improve the relationships to the customers and increases trust of compliance agencies and inspectors. A work environment free of hazards that cause accidents and a dining facility in which customers are safe and secure should be aims of all foodservice owners.

Even if customers don’t get sick, storing, preparing or serving food in unsanitary and unsafe conditions will adversely affect the food quality and health of consumers. Once quality starts to slip, food poisoning or accidents aren’t far behind. Customers often judge your food based on the cleanliness of your establishment. If they see an eating area or an open kitchen that is visibly dirty, they are likely to be wary of the food they are being served.

They are not going to enjoy their eating to any fast food restaurants if they are served bad food that makes them sick and encountered accidents. They won’t be coming back, nor will they recommend that spot

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to their friends. That’s why sanitation and safety operation are important to the foodservice industry to avoid customer lost and having a bad reputation from the consumers. Background of the study

Each type of foodservice establishment will be governed by management philosophy, policies, and procedures individualized to the organization, visions, values, goals, objectives, and systems of operation. Sanitation within the food industry means the adequate treatment of food-contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the food or its safety for the consumer (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR110, USA).

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures are mandatory for food industries in United States, which are regulated by 9 CFR parts 416 in conjunction with 21 CFR parts 178.1010. Similarly, in Japan, food hygiene has to be achieved through compliance with food sanitation law. Safety is generally interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death, injury or damage to property. In response to perceived risks many interventions may be proposed with engineering responses and regulation being two of the most common. Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses.

It can include protection of people or of possessions. The one thing that all of the types of food establishments have in common is providing safe and sanitary food to the people who are far away from home for one or more meals per day. Today, Santa Cruz serves as the capital of Laguna and is considered as the business and commercial center on the eastern part of the province. The said city has also different fast food Restaurants Corporation naming, Jollibee, McDonald and Chowking. The researchers saw that as an opportunity to conduct research study about Assessment on the Level of Sanitation and Safety of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers.

Theoretical Framework

This paper recognized the fact that hygiene and sanitation lapses can happen even when an institution and the whole country have sufficient water supply. Keith Proudlove (1987: 59) posits that, if the public is aware of food poisoning, it should report such cases more readily rather than accept their illness as another bilious attack; but her argument is more of a curative than a preventive intervention. Many reasons account for food poisoning in the hospitality industry; this range from lack of hygiene education, proper sanitation, to poor.

According to the Susan F.Robinson ed (1992:2), the absolute safety of a food or an ingredient can never be guaranteed. This theory is applicable in hospitality institutions especially where no appropriate precautions are taken during purchasing of raw materials, development, through manufacturer into products, processing, and final preparation and in distribution. This argument indicates that, the risks from any food can be kept to an absolute minimum i.e. any level of contamination from the source of raw materials used in the preparation of food items in the hospitality and tourism facilities can be prevented to avoid disasters. Jack in the Box hired food scientist David M. Theno to help the chain prevent future outbreaks. Theno advocated an established system known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).

HACCP identifies the steps in the food-production process at which a product can become unsafe to eat. Many restaurants and suppliers now use this and similar programs to help ensure the safety of food. Enticed by the success of the McDonald’s concept, Kroc signed a franchise agreement with the brothers and began opening McDonald’s restaurants in Illinois. By 1961, Kroc had bought out the brothers and created what is now the modern McDonald’s Corporation. One of the major parts of his business plan was to promote cleanliness of his restaurants to growing groups of Americans that had become aware of food safety issues.

As part of his commitment to cleanliness, Kroc often took part in cleaning his own Des Plaines, Illinois outlet by hosing down the garbage cans and scraping gum off the cement. Another concept Kroc added was great swaths of glass which enabled the customer to view the food preparation, a practice still found in chains such as Krispy Kreme. A clean atmosphere was only part of Kroc’s grander plan which separated McDonald’s from the rest of the competition and attributes to their great success.

Conceptual Framework

This study was guided by a research paradigm to be able to picture out clearly the Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers.

Frame 1.
Frame 2.

Input. It consist the independent variables such as the profile of the respondents which includes the age, gender, and educational background.
Process. It consist the variables under the Assessment on the Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers. Output.

Statement of the problem

The main objective of this research was to analyze and find out The Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the respondents profile with respect to:
1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 Educational Background?
2. What is the Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers in terms of: 2.1 Health Control
2.2 Sanitation
2.3 Cleanliness
2.4 Vermin Control?
3. Is there any significant effect on the profile of the respondents and Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers?

Significance of the study
The following are the beneficiaries of the study:
Fast Food Restaurant Owners.

Scope and limitation of the study

This study covers the Assessment on the Level of Sanitation and Safety Operation of Fast Food Restaurants in Sta. Cruz, Laguna as Perceived by the Customers. The researchers used 30 respondents from the customers and employees within the premises of the fast food restaurants the survey covers from……….. Definition of Terms

Age. A period of human life, measured by years from birth, usually marked by a certain stage or degree of mental or physical development and involving legal responsibility and capacity Gender. The state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones). Customer. A person or organization that buys goods or services from a store or business. Fast Food Restaurant. Also known as a quick service restaurant. It is a specific type of restaurant characterized both by its fast food cuisine and by minimal table service. Food.

Perception. The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. Sanitation. The development and application of sanitary measures for the sake of cleanliness and protecting health.

Chapter 2


Although the terms sex and gender are used interchangeably in many writings, some authors have differentiated between the terms (American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, 1992; Sanders, 2003)

Chapter 3


This chapter includes the Research Design, Population and Sample Research Procedure, Research instrument and Statistical Treatment of Data. Research Design
Population and Sample
Research Procedure
Research Instrument

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It's very important to prepare food safely to help stop harmful bacteria from spreading and growing. You can take some steps to help protect yourself and your family from the spread of harmful bacteria.

Wash your hands

Your hands can easily spread bacteria around the kitchen and onto food. It's important to always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water:

  • before starting to prepare food
  • after touching raw food such as meat, poultry and vegetables
  • after going to the toilet
  • after touching the bin
  • after touching pets

Don't forget to dry your hands thoroughly as well, because wet hands spread bacteria more easily.

Keep worktops clean

Before you start preparing food, it’s important worktops, kitchen utensils and chopping boards are clean. If they’ve been touched by raw meat, poultry, eggs or vegetables you'll need to wash them thoroughly.

You should change dish cloths and tea towels regularly to avoid any bacteria growing on the material. 

Separate raw food from ready-to-eat food

Raw foods such as meat, fish and vegetables may contain harmful bacteria that can spread very easily by touching:

  • other foods
  • worktops
  • chopping boards
  • knives

You should keep raw foods away from ready-to-eat food, such as salad, fruit and bread. This is because these types of food won't be cooked before you eat them, so any bacteria that get onto the food won't be killed.

To help stop bacteria from spreading:

  • don't let raw food such as meat, fish or vegetables touch other food
  • don't prepare ready-to-eat food using a chopping board or knife that you have used to prepare raw food, unless they have been washed thoroughly first
  • wash your hands thoroughly after touching raw meat, fish or vegetables and before you touch anything else
  • cover raw meat or fish and store on the bottom shelf of the fridge where they can't touch or drip onto other foods
  • don’t wash raw meat before cooking 
  • wash, peel or cook vegetables unless these are described as 'ready-to-eat' on the packaging

Check the label

It's important to read food labels to make sure everything you’re going to use has been stored correctly (according to any storage instructions) and that none of the food is past its ‘use by’ date.

Food that goes off quickly usually has storage instructions on the label that say how long you can keep the food and whether it needs to go in the fridge.

This sort of food often has special packaging to help keep it fresh for longer. But it will go off quickly once you’ve opened it. This is why the storage instructions also tell you how long the food will keep once the packaging has been opened. For example, you might see ‘eat within two  days of opening’ on the label.

Use by dates

You will also see ‘use by’ dates on food that goes off quickly. You shouldn’t use any food after the ‘use by’ date even if the food looks and smells fine, because it might contain harmful bacteria.

Best before dates

The 'best before' dates marked on most foods are more about quality than safety. When this date runs out, it doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but its flavour, colour or texture might begin to deteriorate.

An exception to this is eggs, which have a best before date of no more than 28 days after they are laid. After this date the quality of the egg will deteriorate and if any salmonella bacteria are present, they could multiply to high levels and could make you ill. If you do intend to use an egg after its best before date, make sure that you only use it in dishes where it will be fully cooked, so that both yolk and white are solid, such as in a cake or as a hard-boiled egg.