Imagine two different chocolate bars. They both need to satisfy the customer, but one might do it through a biscuit centre and one through the texture of the chocolate. They have the same purpose but different ways of achieving it.
One way to link texts is through the purpose they are aiming to achieve. Two different texts may:
- have the same purpose but achieve it in different ways
- have the same purpose but a different subject
- have the same subject but a different purpose
When comparing texts, consider both what they have in common and what is different about them.
If they have the same purpose:
- Do they use similar techniques? For example, two newspaper articles could use exaggeration to present completely different viewpoints of the same topic.
- Are they aimed at the same kind of audience or different ones? Within two advertisements, the writers will aim to sell their product but will have a different target audience in mind.
If they have a different purpose but the same subject:
- How do they treat it differently? For example, if you are analysing two newspaper articles about the same event in the news, how does the language show how the writer has aimed their writing for a particular audience?
- How have the writers shown a different opinion towards the same subject?
Sample questions - notes and answers
Here are some notes based on responses to two sample questions, which clearly identify the genre, audience, purpose and style appropriate to answer each question.
|GENRE||Letter (of invitation)|
|AUDIENCE||A friend (a teenager like you)|
|PURPOSE||Explain and describe (one of your favourite places)|
|STYLE||Chatty but persuasive and detailed|
|AUDIENCE||Adults (who make decisions about where to go on holiday)|
|PURPOSE||Argue (for or against tourism to primitive places)|
|STYLE||Formal and serious but personal and persuasive|
A sample answer
Look at the following sample question and answer for ideas on how to write a persuasive letter.
After laying out the addresses and dates correctly, you might go on to write:
I'm writing to complain about an article in your newspaper criticising teenagers. Teenagers are not that bad; they just don't have enough to do.
This is correct, but it is not very interesting. The writer would struggle to write for the rest of the 45 minutes they have in the exam.
A better response would be to ask yourself why you would write a letter like this. The answer is probably because you read the article in the newspaper and it made you cross. The next step would be to ask yourself why it made you cross. The answer to this may be that you are a parent with a teenage son who doesn't have much to do, perhaps because the local playground was sold off. Suddenly you have a scenario and your ideas will come thick and fast. The letter can therefore begin something like this:
I was appalled to read the article in your newspaper last week criticising teenagers. As a parent of one myself, I feel personally insulted by the arrogant tone and ignorant attitude of your journalist.
My own son, for example, used to play in the local playground until two months ago when it was closed and bulldozed. All this was done just so some adults (who you might think are excellent role models) could get a nice view from their windows...
This letter now stands out. It ticks all the right boxes and, as a result, this piece of work will get a high grade:
|PURPOSE||Argue a point and make someone do something about it|
|AUDIENCE||Newspaper editor and readers of the newspaper (the best letters get printed)|
|STYLE||Formal and forceful|
Remember the key points for writing non-fiction texts:
- get the genre (form) right (eg magazine article, newsletter or letter)
- be clear and imaginative
- use clear and varied sentences and paragraphs
- use the appropriate language techniques and presentational devices
- make sure you use correct punctuation and spelling
Now try a Test Bite.
Write a letter to a friend, explaining why you would like him or her to join you in a visit to a place which you think is very special.
Some people think it's wrong that primitive peoples and their communities are disrupted by tourists and TV crews, and that they should be left in peace. Write an article for a travel magazine which argues for or against this idea.
Write a letter to the local newspaper complaining about an article critical of teenagers. Argue that teenagers simply do not have enough facilities to keep them busy.
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