What is Biomagnification?
Biomagnification stands for Biological Magnification, which means the increase of contaminated substances or toxic chemicals that take place in the food chains. These substances often arise from intoxicated or contaminated environments. The contaminants include heavy metals namely mercury, arsenic, pesticides such as DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compounds which are then taken up by organisms because of the food they consume or the intoxication of their environment.
These materials are highly present in a variety of household and industrial chemicals. The harmful substances then build up inside the organism’s cells. When organisms in the higher food chain consume the organisms containing the toxins below their trophic levels, the toxins gradually become concentrated in the higher food chain. Because this is a repetitive process in the ecosystem and throughout the entire food chain, the higher organisms are the ones that will accumulate most of the toxins.
According to Encyclopedia,
“Biomagnification (or bioaccumulation) refers to the ability of living organisms to accumulate certain chemicals to a concentration larger than that occurring in their inorganic, non-living environment, or in the case of animals, in the food that they eat.”
Causes of Biomagnification
The release of toxic chemicals and pollutants into the environments such as the seas, air, and land results in the accumulation of toxins and harmful substances in the environment. The concentration of these toxic chemicals and pollutants seem to be very low when released in different environments, it eventually accumulates and gets absorbed by lower organisms in the food chains such as fish, earthworms, and plants. When the lower organisms are eaten by other organism and the process goes up the trophic levels, biomagnifiaction occurs.
Agricultural pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers, among other agricultural chemicals are highly toxic and often find way into the soils, rivers or lakes and the seas through surface storm water runoff. The primary agricultural inputs including pesticides, industrial by-product wastes, some fertilizers, and specific agrochemical products contain traces of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper and lead. These substances cause severe health impacts to humans and aquatic animals such as fish when indirectly ingested and accumulate in the body tissues.
- Organic contaminants
Manures and Biosolids frequently contain nutrients including nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen. Furthermore, because they are industrially processed, they may also have within them contaminants such as personal care products (PPCPs) and pharmaceuticals. These products have been found in human and animal bodies and are believed to have negatively health impacts to wildlife, animals, and humans.
- Industrial manufacturing activities and pollution
The manufacturing processes of industries indirectly or directly release toxic and harmful substances which find a way to the soils, rivers, lakes and oceans. Industrial processes pollute the environment in several ways by emitting or discharging toxic pollutants into the environment which find way into the food chain, leading to biomagnifications.
- Mining activities in the ocean
Mining activities in the deep sea is to extract minerals and metal ores like zinc, cobalt, silver, aluminum and gold destroy the oceans and the coastal regions as the mining processes generate scores of sulfide and selenium deposits in the waters. The toxicity levels build up and are absorbed by ocean creatures which are then consumed by organisms in the higher trophic levels of the food chain.
Effects of Biomagnification
- Impact on human health
Humans become more susceptible to cancers, liver and kidney failure, respiratory disorders, birth defects in pregnant women, brain damage, and heart diseases are a result of mercury, cadmium, lead, cobalt, chromium and other chemical poisoning. For instance, diseases like hepatitis and cancer have been attributed to consuming seafood that has been poisoned by mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
- Effects on reproduction and development of marine creatures
The various toxic chemicals and elements accumulate in the vital organs of the various aquatic creatures affecting their reproduction and development. For instance, seabird eggs are laid with thinner shells than normal, and can result in the birds crushing their eggs instead of incubating them. Selenium and heavy metals such as mercury also affect the reproduction of aquatic creatures such as fish as it destroys their reproductive organs. Besides, PCB’S (polychlorinated biphenyls) also biomagnifies and impairs reproduction and is considerable high in aquatic systems.
- Destruction of the coral reefs
The coral reefs are destroyed by cyanide which is used in leaching gold and in fishing. The reefs provide for spawning, feeding, and dwelling grounds for numerous sea creatures. When destroyed, the survival of aquatic creatures is highly compromised.
- Disruption of the food chain
Many sea creatures depend on the natural food chain for survival. When chemicals and other toxins are carried into the soils, rivers, lakes or oceans and taken up by various organisms, it disrupts the interconnected relationships within the food chain.
It happens when small animals ingest or plants absorb the toxic elements after which they are eaten by bigger animals, consequently, affecting the entire natural food chain. The creatures or plants intoxicated with substances such as mercury, copper, chromium, selenium and cobalt may also be consumed by humans and top animals in the food chain leading to susceptibility to diseases, reproductive disorders, and even deaths.
Process of Biomagnification
Biomagnification process occurs when certain toxic chemicals and pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compounds go up the food chain by working their way through the environment and into the soil or the water systems after which they are eaten by aquatic animals or plants, which in turn are consumed by animals, humans, and large birds. Eventually, these substances increase in concentration in the organisms as they move up the food chain because they are slowly excreted or metabolized/broken down.
Here is an explanation showing the process of biomagnification:
- Release of toxic chemicals and pollutants into the environment
The process begins with the release of toxic chemicals and pollutants into the environment and eventually works their way into soils, rivers or lakes, and the seas. The concentration of these toxic chemicals and pollutants seem to be very low when released in different environments. They are very minute even in terms of weight.
Phytoplankton refers to small plants that float in the seas that normally absorb toxins. Once absorbed, the toxins stay in their tissues without being excreted or broken down. With time, the toxins accumulate to high concentrations up to 200 parts a trillion which represents a toxin accumulation increase by about four fold.
Zooplankton refers to small marine animals that float in the seas. They consume the phytoplankton and thus take in the toxin. The toxins stay locked in the organism’s tissue without being excreted or broken down. Over time, the toxin concentration increases up to two parts per billion which represents about a ten-fold increase over the previous concentration.
- Small fish consume the zooplankton
Whenever the small fish feed on the zooplanktons, they consequently take up the toxins which get absorbed in their fatty tissues. As a result, accumulation occurs and the concentrations build up to about 20 parts per billion which is another ten-fold increase.
- Large fish graze on the smaller fish
Again, when the large fish graze on the smaller fish for food, they consume the toxins that accumulate in their fatty tissues. The concentrations become higher up to ranges of 80 to 100 parts per billion. This is about four to five fold increase in the toxic levels.
- The top food chain organisms consumes the fish
The organisms at the top of the food chain including the marine mammals such as dolphin, sea birds, and humans gradually build up the toxins in their tissues such as their liver when they consume the large fish. The levels of concentrations here increase to the highest ranges of 10,000 to 15,000 parts per billion. The results impact the animal’s fertility and make them vulnerable to diseases as they interfere with the normal functioning of vital organs.
Photo by: Basheer
- Food Chain
- What is Trophic Level?
- Type of Food Chains
- Ecological Pyramids
- Types of Pyramids
- Food Web
- Energy Flow in the Ecosystem
- 2nd law of themodynamics
- Connection: Trophic level vs Energy flow
- DDT and Biomagnification
- Biotic Potential.
- Carrying Capacity
- Interspecies relations
- Predation vs Parasitism
- Free download IGNOU Material
- Mock questions
- For example, plants are eaten by insects, who are eaten by frogs, these frogs are eaten by fish, who are eaten by human beings.
- Plant > insect > frog > fish > human.
- This sequence is known as Food chain.
What is Trophic Level?
- Each step in the food chain is called a “Trophic level”.
- In this food chain: Plant > Insect > Frog > Fish > human= five steps.
- The trophic level to which an organism belongs, indicates how far it is away from plants in the food chain.
- green plants (producers)= trophic level I
- herbivores (primary consumers)= trophic level II
- carnivores (secondary consumers)=trophic level III
- top carnivores (tertiary consumers)= trophic level IV
- Herbivores (deer, cow etc.) are always @second trophic level.
- Higher trophic levels are made up of carnivores.
- An organism cannot always be assigned to one specific trophic level.
- E.g. man (omnivore), so he is both a herbivore (@2nd trophic level) and as a carnivore he can be (@>2nd trophic level)
|Starts with green plants.e.g. Grass> grasshoppers> birds> hawks.|
|Also starts with green plants but here smaller organisms depending on larger organism. e.g. Grass> cow> lice.|
|Starts with dead plant/animal/ waste material> decomposers.|
*Detrius = dry leaves, dead plant, animal remains, dead skin cells, other organic waste (urine, excreta).
- You already know about the food chain: grass –> Grasshoppers –>birds –>hawk.
- Each step or level is known as Trophic level.
- If we draw these trophic levels in a verticle fashion, a pyramid is created. This pyramid is known as Ecological pyramid.
- The Autotrophs (green plants) = base of the pyramid
- The top carnivores (lion tigers) = tip (apex) of this pyramid.
Types of Pyramids
- Pyramid of numbers,
- Pyramid of biomass
- Pyramid of energy or productivity
- Food Chain:–> Grass> grasshopper >frog > fish > man
- Food chain assume the isolated linear line. But in real life, frog could be eating other insects apart from grasshopper. Fish could be eating smaller fishes apart from frog. So there exists an interconnected Network of (Food Chain + Food Chain + Food chain…).
- This interconnected network of food chains = food web.
Why is Food web important?
- Suppose in a jungle, the deer species is wiped out due to some human poaching/ diseases / natural disaster.
- Then its predators (lion,tiger) can feed on other animals such as fox, wolf, crane, peacock etc. until deer population grows again.
- Thus, food web= help living organism survive in case of minor or major setbacks in their food chain.
- food web=provides stability to the ecosystem.
Energy Flow in the Ecosystem
- So far you know what is food chain and what is food web.
- You also know what is Trophic level. (each step in a food chain).
- When energy is passed from one tropic level to next trophic level, some part of energy is wasted. So energy declines as we move up in the chain/ web / pyramid.
- Because some energy is wasted as body heat.
- No herbivore (deer, cow) can entirely digest and absorb the plant nutrients.
- Some energy is wasted while capturing the prey. (e.g. Tiger chasing a deer.)
- Some energy remains trapped e.g. Tiger only eats the flash of a deer. He doesn’t eat the skin, hair, bone and teeth of a deer.
- So the energy stored in the skin, hair, bone and teeth of a deer =not moved up in the food chain.
- However this energy is later utilized when scavenger (hyena) comes into picture. Because Hyena’s stomach acid is so powerful, it can digest the skin, hair, bone, teeth and other remnants of a deer corpse.
2nd law of themodynamics
- When energy changes from one form to another, some of the energy is Lost. Suppose a jungle receives 1000 calories worth Sunlight everyday.
- Most of the sunlight is not absorbed; some is reflected back to space.
- Out of the sunlight that is absorbed, only a small portion is utilized by green plants
- Out of which the plant uses up some for respiration, therefore only 100 calories are stored as energy rich materials.
- Now a deer, eats the green plant containing 100 cal of food energy.
- The deer uses some of it for its own metabolism and stores only 10 cal as food energy.
- A tiger eats the deer gets an even smaller amount of energy.
- Thus usable energy decreases from sunlight to producer(green plant) to herbivore(deer) to carnivore(tiger).
- Therefore, the energy pyramid will always be upright.
Connection: Trophic level vs Energy flow
- The loss of energy (explained in previous para) limits the number of trophic levels in the ecosystem.
- Hence trophic levels are seldom more than five.
- This also explains why the steps in a food chain are limited to four or five.
- Movement of Energy is Unidirectional (one-way).
- Because initial Solar energy trapped by an autotroph (plant) does not go back to Sun.
- Similarly, energy that passes from herbivore (deer) to carnivore (lion) does not pass back to herbivore (deer).
- This unidirectional (one-way) and continuous energy flow=prevents the collapse of Ecosystem.
- (otherwise, if lion ate deer and another rabbit ate lion then what will happen hahaha!)
- The Movement of nutrients/materials is cyclic.
- e.g. grasshopper eats grass and dies.
- Its body is decomposed and again absorbed by some other plant/grass.
- In other words: The Decomposers break down the fecal matter, excretory products and dead bodies of all plants and animals into inorganic materials.
- And this inorganic material is again reused by autotrophs (green plants).
- Ok here is a question? If you want to make the movement of nutrients unidirectional then what should be done? Ans. Eliminate the decomposers.
Entry of DDT and other pesticides, damages this smooth cycle of nutrient movement. Let’s check how:
DDT and Biomagnification
- DDT=dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane.
- It is a “broad” spectrum pesticide (meaning it can kill variety of insects, not just one or two.)
- It lasts for a relatively long time (nearly 20 years) after one application.
- DDT is cheap to produce, been extensively used across world.
- Problem: DDT cannot be metabolized (digested) by any living organism.
- Suppose DDT was sprayed on water.
- There are millions of planktons in the water. Each of them absorbed 5ppm of DDT. Since they cannot digest DDT, it remains unprocessed in their body.
- A fish eats 8 such planktons, so it gets 8 x 5 =40 ppm of DDT in its body.
- A bird eats 50 such fishes, so bird gets 40 x 50 =2000 ppm of DDT in its body.
- So the amount of DDT keeps increasing as we move up in the food chain. This phenomenon is known as bio magnification.
- Bio magnification is bad because it produces variety of diseases in the species + its offsprings (babies) via teratogenesis.
- Teratogenesis = formation of defective embryo.
- Biomagnification is a man-induced process.
- Biomagnification occurs with non-degradable chemicals/substances/pollutants only.
- For example Pesticides, anti-knocking agents used in internal combustion engines, paints, artificial perfumes etc.
- Biomagnification doesn’t occur with degradable chemicals/substances for example sugar, tea, cheese, milk etc. because they can be digested by (some) living organisms.
- Unlimited food + ideal environmental conditions =a species can produce offspring @ maximum rate. This is known as Biotic potential.
- It can be high or low, depending on how many offspring (children) can a species produce in ideal conditions.
|High||Bacteria, insects, mice, rabbits||produce a large number of offspring in a short time.|
|low||larger species like elephants, tigers and humans||Gestation period is long. So they produce only a few offspring species during their lifetime, even if ideal food and environment conditions are given.|
- It means the maximum population that an environment can support and sustain.
- When the carrying capacity is reached, birth rates equal death rates and the population should maintain a steady state equilibrium.
|Interaction||Species A||Species B||Example|
|Enjoys||Enjoys||Bees and flowers (pollination)|
|Enjoys||Neutral||Orchid plant growing on a mango tree.|
|Enjoys||Harmed||Tiger eating deer.|
|Enjoys||Harmed||Tapeworm in human digestive tract.|
|Harmed||Harmed||Jungle Deers vs domestic goats grazing in same area.|
|Neutral||Harmed||bread mold Penicillium secretes penicillin and it destroys other bacteria.|
Btw, what’s the difference between
Predation vs Parasitism
|Tiger killing deer.||Tapeworm in human digestive tract.|
|done only for food.||Done for food + shelter.|
|Prey (deer) killed immediately||Host not killed immediately|
|Predator is (usually) big in size.||Smaller.|
|Predator’s biotic potential is usually very low. (tiger, lion etc.)||Parasite’s biotic potential is usually higher.|
Free Download IGNOU EnB Material
This article is based on the first four chapter of IGNOU’s Certificate course in Environmental Studies: Click me to download (Size 30MB)
You already have NIOS material on EnB. This IGNOU set has lot of overlapping with its coverage, but still a good read nonetheless.
- It is a natural phenomenon occurring since stone-age.
- It is associated with biodegradable chemicals.
- Bio Magnification protects biodiversity.
- Only 1 and 2
- Only 2 and 3
- Only 1 and 3
Q2. Correct statements
In an ecosystem,
- The flow of energy is cyclic
- The flow of nutrients is unidirectional
- Only 1
- Only 2
Q3. Correct Statements about Trophic levels:
- Each step in a food chain is called a “Trophic level”.
- Carnivores always occupy trophic level 1 or 2.
- Herbivores always occupy trophic level 3 or above.
- Every species can be assigned a single unique trophic level.
- Only 1 and 2
- Only 1 and 3
- Only 1, 2 and 3
- Only 1
Q4. Which among the following is/are example(s) of bio magnification?
- Tiger kills a cow. A (Human) poacher poisons the corpse of cow. Tiger comes back and eats it. Tiger dies.
- A factory discharges untreated chemical affluent into a pond. A Man regularly eats fishes caught from the pond. Man gets cancer after some years.
- Only 1
- Only 2
Q5. An ecosystem would collapse:
- If flow of energy is not unidirectional.
- If flow of nutrient is not cyclic.
- Only 1
- Only 2
Q6. The usable energy decreases as we move up in the food chain. Which among the following explains this phenomenon?
- Newton’s third law of motion.
- Einstein’s law of general relativity.
- Second law of thermodynamics.
- None of above.
Q7. When an ecosystem has reached its carrying capacity It means.
- Birth rate = death rate
- Birth rate < death rate
- Birth rate > death rate
- Birth rate greater than or less than death rate
Q8. Which among the following is/are example(s) of commensalism?
- An orchid growing on a eucalyptus tree
- Tapeworm in the intestinal tract of a child.
- Plasmodium in Human blood.
- Bees drinking nectar of a flower.
- Only 2 and 3
- Only 1 and 4
- Only 1, 2 and 4
- Only 1
Q9. Correct statement:
- Biotic potential of tigers is higher than rabbits.
- Biotic potential of rabbits is higher than tigers.
- Both equal
- None of above.
Q10. If one species benefits by harming another species. It may be
- Only 1
- Only 2
- Either 1 or 2