The Evolution Of Management Practices And Theories
With the rapid change of the world, thought of management, theory and practise keeps on changing. It has been transformed through innovation. Taking into consideration the uncertainty surrounding the construction industry, it is essential paying attention to how people work within an organisation that has set goals that needs to be achieved. To be able to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to understand management relating issues such as culture, motivation, leadership and issues relating like coordinating, planning and controlling. Understanding the way people and organisations work is very vital when it comes to the built environment. As a Quantity Surveyor some of my duties are to deals with people, technical issues and financial aspect of an organisation. However, to successfully achieve this aim, it is of the essence that quantity surveyors have adequate understanding of management theories which will propel them to deliver at the work place effectively and efficiently. This essay follows the path of management history while investigating the growth of management thinking and how contemporary management practices have evolved from this evolution.
1.1 Diverse Definition for Management and Organisations
According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2001) organization are “social arrangement for accomplishing controlled performance in the search of common goals”.
Thompson and McHugh (1995) defined organisation as “consciously created arrangement to achieve goals by collective means”. Henri Fayol (1916) cited by (Cole, 2004) defines management as “to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control”. Koontz and McFarland 1979 cited by Dos Santos 2002 also defines management as “a field of learning which is organised, researched and taught in integrative way, bringing aspects from various disciplines while at the same time developing its own body of theory”.
Based on these definitions, management and organisation complement each other hence it is essential to grasp both definitions in other to achieve organisational goals.
1.2 The Various Theories
1.2.1 Classical Management
The classical management has two basic drives namely scientific and general administrative management. Scientific management focuses on how to increase productivity whiles the administrative management theory looks at organizations in general and concentrate on how to make them effective and efficient.
Taylor imagined that workers would be able to make out the relationship between completion of more work in units and the economic rewards been increased. Taylors work as described by (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) depicts how theories were to take place at shop floor levels, then how facts were substituted for opinion and guess work. Henri Fayol, his fellow classical writer had a different perception which looked at organisation from top to bottom. The pace setters of classical theories had engineering...
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It is fortuitously for this coevals director because they have more than century’s direction theory and thought to review. Although modern direction theory day of the months chiefly from the early 20th century. there was serious thought and speculating about pull offing many old ages before. Throughout many different parts of authors and practicians have resulted different attacks to direction. ensuing in a sort of direction theory jungle and assist them to confront the challenge of the hereafter.
Despite the inexactitude and comparative crudeness of direction theory. the development of idea on direction day of the months back to the yearss when people foremost attempted to carry through ends by working together in groups. To cognize something of the background of the development of direction idea. ‘Even limited cognition can assist one appreciate the many sentiments. thoughts. and scientific underpinnings which preceded the rush of direction idea may assist us avoid rediscovering antecedently know thoughts. ’ ( Harold Koontz. Heinz Weihrich. 1988 )
2. Development in direction theory
2. 1 Management Development History
The history of modern direction has been characterized by the swing of a pendulum. ‘Trace back the development of direction theory from the 19th century to the present day–basically from Taylorism to Japanization. ’ ( John Sheldrake. 1997 ) Scientific direction developed in the melting pot of American industrialisation and later spread throughout the industrial and industrializing universe.
Taylor proved to be a major provoker of the creative activity and widespread application of scientific direction. although non the first to look into a theory in this country. However. while Taylor’s guidelines for direction are possibly the most widely recognised many subscribers to this attack. whose work besides shows relevancy today. To advert merely few below:
‘Management as a profession’ . Mary Parker Follett ( 1868-1933 )
‘Classifying the Elementss of Work’ . Frank B. Gilbreth ( 1868-1924 ) and Lillian M. Gilbreth ( 1878-1972 )
‘The Ideal Bureaucracy’ . Max Weber ( 1864-1920 ) .
‘Hawthorne experiments’ . Elton Mayo ( 1880-1949 )
‘The Theory of Human Motivation’ . Abraham H. Maslow ( 1908-1970 )
Many of the theoreticians strongly disagree with each other. Some of the differences are so extremist that they can ne’er be reconciled. An of import result of this is that. although there might be general understanding from clip to clip on what constitutes best direction pattern. the theoretical ingredients will be given to change. ‘Classical direction theory is hence contestable instead than unequivocal. Although there is a sense of imperfect. evolutionary polish. there is no maestro narration to reassure us that the latest theory is needfully the best. ’ ( John Sheldrake. 1997 ) Management theory did non. of class. arrive to the full articulated at the beginning of this century ; it already had a considerable history.
3. Classical Approach
3. 1 Classical Defined
We ever debated whether the direction theory is or non utile. First. it is hard to insulate any peculiar set of rules or theoretical accounts ( classical. behavioral. direction scientific discipline ) in “pure” signifier. Particularly translate those rules into pattern from the assorted alterations and attempts. Second. peculiar rules of direction are interpreted otherwise by assorted persons. and the consequence is frequently confusion. Third. the major schools of idea adopting direction rules house people with differing backgrounds. values. and managerial experience. These differences create some struggle of the adherents and rules of the direction theory. The classical authors placed accent on the planning of work. the proficient demands of the administration. rules of direction. and premise of rational and logical behavior. ( Laurie J. Mullins. 2002 )
‘Classic’ . in a rigorous sense. connotes “having recognized worth” ; ( Michael T. Matteson and John M. Ivancevich. 1981 ) Harmonizing to these historical parts. we believed that have achieved the province of acknowledgment in the field of direction.
3. 2 Classical Position
‘The oldest of the “formal” point of views of direction emerged during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and come ton be know as the classical position. ’ ( Pamela S. Lewis. Stephen H. Goodman. Patricia M. Fandt. 1998 ) The classical position had its roots in the direction experiences. That was happening in the quickly spread outing fabricating organisations that typified U. S and European industrialisation. Early parts were made by direction practicians and theoretician from several corners of the universe.
The classical position consists of three chief subfields:
( 1 ) scientific direction ;
( 2 ) administrative direction ; and
( 3 ) bureaucratism direction. ( D. Wren. 1979 ) .
As we will see. scientific direction focal point on the productiveness of the single worker. administrative direction focuses on the maps of direction. and bureaucratic direction focuses on the overall organisational system. ( Pamela S. Lewis. Stephen H. Goodman. Patricia M. Fandt. 1998 )
4. Scientific Management
4. 1 Scientific Defined
“What is Scientific Management? ” by Frederick Taylor ( 1856-1917 ) . the ‘father’ of scientific direction. Scientific direction focuses on the betterment of single worker productiveness. Time and gesture surveies observe and measure a worker’s physical motions in order to find the best manner of executing a undertaking. The outlook in scientific direction is that directors will develop standard methods for executing each occupation. choice workers with the appropriate abilities for each occupation. train workers in base methods. and support workers by be aftering their work. These rules are normally summarised as:
? The development of a true scientific discipline for each person’s work ;
? The scientific choice. preparation and development of the workers ;
? Co-operation with the workers to guarantee work is carried out in the prescribed manner ;
? The division of work and duty between direction and the workers. ( Laurie. J Mullins. 2002 )
4. 2 Mental Revolution
In its kernel. scientific direction besides involves a complete mental revolution on the any peculiar constitution and industry. The mental revolution is non merely on the portion of workers but besides direction. It encourages both workers and direction to increase the excess available to them. Scientific direction supports harmonious articulation attempts and cooperation alternatively of hostility and discord. ( Michael T. Matteson and John M. Ivancevich. 1981 ) It complete changes the mental attitude of the both sides and promote them halt drawing against one another. and alternatively of accomplishing to the same way.
4. 3 The drawbacks for the workers:
? it reduced the worker’s function to that of a stiff attachment to methods and processs over which he had no discretion
? it led to increased atomization of work due to its accent on divisional labor
? it generated an economically based attack to the motive of employees by enabling wage to geared end products
? it ruled out any realistic bargaining about pay rates since every occupation was measured and rated ‘scientifically’
In drumhead. the scientific direction technique has late been employed to increase productiveness and efficiency both in private and public services ; it has besides had the disadvantages of disregarding the human facets of employment. This led to the creative activity of tiring insistent occupations with the debut of systems for tight control and the disaffection of store floor employees from their directors.
5. Administrative Management
5. 1 Five Elementss of Administrative Management
Administrative direction focuses on the directors and the maps they perform. ‘This attack to direction is most closely identified with Henri Fayol ( 1841-1925 ) . the ‘father’ of modern direction theory. a Gallic excavation applied scientist. whose major positions emerged in the early 20th century. ’ ( H. Faylo. 1930 ) He recognized the basic managerial maps is really of import for the director. Depend on his ain calling ; Fayol identified these maps as five elements of the direction:
? Planning ;
? Organizing ;
? Commanding ( taking ) ;
? Coordinating ; And
He believed the direction procedure was universally the same whatever the nature of the administration being managed.
5. 2 Fourteen Universal Principles
Fayol besides attempted to explicate what directors do and how they do it. He argued that there were cosmopolitan procedures and rule that could be applied in pull offing any type of house. Under this attack. direction was seen as a rational and orderly procedure and as a uninterrupted procedure. Fayol established 14 cosmopolitan rules for pull offing administrations:
? Division of work ;
? Authority and duty ;
? Discipline ;
? Integrity of bid ;
? Integrity of way ;
? Subordination of single to general involvement ;
? Wage ;
? Centralization ;
? Scalar concatenation ;
? Order ;
? Equity ;
? Stability of term of office ;
? Initiative ;
? Esprit de corps.
Throughout many scrutinies of these maps. he indicates that these rules apply non merely to concern but besides to political. spiritual. philanthropic. military. and other projects.
5. 3 Advantages
Fayol was the first individual who really to give a definition of direction. which is named ‘forecast and program. to form. to command. to co-ordinate and to control’ today. He indicated much of the basic nomenclature and constructs. which would be elaborated upon by future research workers such as division of labour. scalar concatenation. integrity of bid and centralisation
5. 4 Disadvantages
? it was fundamentally depicting the construction of formal organisation
? the absence of attending to issues such as single verses general involvement. wage and equity that he saw the employer as paternalistic and besides by definition working in the employee’s involvement
? he does advert the issues associating to the sensitiveness of a patients demands. he saw them as an issues in the context of rational organisation of construction
Fayol’s rules of the administrative direction had been improved a batch during the century by the replacement. However. what part he did is non advance them as definite ‘law’ of direction. he gave us the counsel.
6. Bureaucracy direction
Bureaucracy direction focuses on the overall organisational system and is based upon house regulations. policies. and processs ; a fixed hierarchy ; and a clear division of labor. Max Weber ( 1864-1920 ) . the ‘father’ of modern organisation theory. a German sociologist and historian. is most closely associated with bureaucratic direction. M. Weber. General Economic History. trans. F. H. Knight ( D. Wren. 1979 )
6. 1 Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Weber envisioned a system of direction that would be based upon impersonal and rational behavior. Management of this kind is called a bureaucratism. and it has the undermentioned features:
1 ) Division of labor ;
2 ) Hierarchy of authorization ;
3 ) Rules and processs ;
4 ) Impersonality ;
5 ) Employee choice and publicity ; ( M. Weber. 1947 )
6. 2 Three Styles Governments
Weber besides believed there were three different types of authorization:
1 ) Charismatic authorization
2 ) Traditional authorization
3 ) Rational-legal authorization. ( Mike Jackson. 2000 )
In Weber’s position it was ‘legal authority’ that characterized the modern organisation and was associated with the constitution of bureaucratism.
Weber identified the turning centrality of expert. proficient cognition in modern. industrial societies and recognized the significance of rational. administrative systems in complex organisations. ‘Certainly his impression of rational bureaucratism is without uncertainty the individual most of import statement on the topic in the societal sciences’ ( Michael T. Matteson and John M. Ivancevich. 1981 )
6. 3 Advantages
The fact of that assignment. publicity and authorization were dependent on proficient competency and reinforced by written regulations and processs of advancing those most able to pull off instead than those favoured to pull off. We take a batch of this for granted in the UK today. Anything else regarded as nepotism and corruptness
? the acceptance of bureaucratic type of direction systems allow organisations to turn into big complex organized systems that are geared towards formalized expressed ends
? it can non be stated strongly plenty that the Weber theory has the advantage of being used as a gilded criterion on which to compare and develop other modern theories
6. 4 Disadvantages
Subsequent analyses by other research workers have identified many disadvantages:
? inclination for organisations to go procedure- dominated instead than end dominated
? excessively heavy formalistic organisational functions to stamp down inaugural and flexibleness of the occupation holders
? stiff behaviour by senior directors can take to standardise services that neglect the demands of the client
? excessively accent processs and regulations will demotivate the subsidiaries that work in the organisations
Of class. Weber’s ‘idea-type’ bureaucratism theory has many defects with which compared the modern organisations. It might be regarded as inefficiency instead than efficiency. It besides be though can non be accomplishing in the pattern but in theory. What it needs to be remained is that this basic bureaucratic faculty still exists in all over the universe and acts an of import function throughout the modern organisation.
7. Relevance of classical attack
After the economic crisis of the South Asia in 1997. most of the south Asia states met the troubles and sank into the confusing of how to reorganise the organisational construction. ‘If we understand the managerial doctrines of the past and present. we will be better equipped to be successful directors in the hereafter. ’ ( Pamela S. Lewis. Stephen H. Goodman. Patricia M. Fandt. 1998 )
The classical minds of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made many valuable parts to the theory and pattern of direction. However. their theories did non ever achieve desirable consequences in the state of affairss that were developing in the early 20th century. ‘Changes were happening in these Fieldss that gave rise to new positions on direction. ‘ ( Pamela S. Lewis. Stephen H. Goodman. Patricia M. Fandt. 1998 )
‘The construct of direction and the basic direction maps are non new phenomena. Throughout the history record. activities have been conducted to the direction maps. ’ ( Pamela S. Lewis. Stephen H. Goodman. Patricia M. Fandt. 1998 ) The classical direction theory non merely of import in the past. but besides it continues to be of import in present. both in the hard-on of contemporary buildings. The memorials it left in which is the behavior of concern and industry around the Earth. Management will go on to be of import every bit long as worlds survive on Earth.
Therefore. harmonizing to the above analysis. it is evidently shows that the classical direction theories non merely have the value today. but besides the development guide-line of the way in the hereafter.
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