Atomic Bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
An atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a historical event that will forever remain a mystery to the Japanese people. August 6th, 1945 is the day that the United States of America used a colossal atomic bombing attack against Japan in Hiroshima. The bomb was equivalent to twenty thousand tons of TNT. The attack flattened Hiroshima city and thousands of the Japanese people died in that horrible event. Before the Japanese could comprehend what had happened, the US made another massive attack on Nagasaki.
Enola Gay will forever be remembered in that event. It was a B-29 bomber that was used by the US to carry out the horrible massacre. There were twelve men on board who ensured that the mission run smoothly. The aircraft had been modified in order to accommodate such a huge atomic bombing. It had stronger engines and newly modified propellers. It was escorted by two bombers which had numerous measuring devices.
Initially, the US had four target cities to choose from; Niiigita, Kokura, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Henry L. Stimson, the secretary of War in the US by that time had chosen Kyoto. However, the committee argued that it was important to choose the cities which had been untouched during the war. The administration of the United States decided that Hiroshima and Negasaki were the best target cities. The reasons for launching the attacks were Japan to surrender to America as fast as possible in order to reduce the US casualties and to develop the US dominance globally. Scholars have established that the US had to use the atomic bomb ahead of Soviet Union’s attack on Japan.
At exactly 8:15 a.m., the bomb exploded. The entire city was destroyed within few minutes. It is estimated that out of 350, 000 people who hailed in Hiroshima city, about 70,000 died on the spot. Takaki (1995) contend that approximately 70, 000 people also died due to radiation within 5 years. Expert says that about 85% of the buildings in Hiroshima were entirely destroyed. Similar impacts prevailed in Nagasaki, however, the impact was lesser compared to Hiroshima. It is estimated that the number of those who died in Nagasaki ranged between 40,000 and 95,000. Currently, Hiroshima city attracts numerous people from around the globe to join in making paper cranes in remembrance of those who died in the two cities.
In conclusion, the US attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki has enormous. The impacts of the bombing were devastating. This is an event that will forever remain in the history of Japan.
|Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki|
|Part of the Pacific War of World War II|
|File:Atomic bombing of Japan.jpg|
Atomic bomb mushroom clouds over
Hiroshima (left) and Nagasaki (right)
| United States|
|Empire of Japan|
|Commanders and leaders|
|William S. Parsons|
Paul W. Tibbets, Jr.
|Manhattan District: 50 U.S., 2 British|
509th Composite Group: 1,770 U.S.
|Second General Army:|
Hiroshima: 40,000 (5 Anti-aircraft batteries)
Nagasaki: 9,000 (4 Anti-aircraft batteries)
|Casualties and losses|
|20 British, Dutch, and American prisoners of war killed||Hiroshima: |
Total: 129,000–226,000+ killed
The Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks on the Empire of Japan during World War II (WWII). The United States and the Allies were fighting against Japan and slowly winning. Two nuclear weapons were dropped on Japan, one on the city of Hiroshima and the other on the city of Nagasaki. The generals wanted to bomb Kokura instead of Nagasaki, but it was too cloudy over Kokura that day. U.S. PresidentHarry S. Truman ordered these attacks on August 6 and 9, 1945. This was near the end of WWII.
The atomic bombs had been created through the Manhattan Project. They created two bombs. The first bomb was called Little Boy, and was to be dropped on Hiroshima, and the second bomb was called Fat Man, and was to be dropped on Nagasaki. Nuclear bombs are much more powerful than other kinds of bombs. Estimated number of deaths are given in the infobox opposite. Six days after the explosion over Nagasaki, Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers on August 15. Japan signed the surrender paper on September 2. This officially ended the Pacific War and World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen for several reasons. First, both cities were unsuitable for firebombing targets, mainly due to the river deltas preventing the firestorms from being very effective. Second, both cities had terrains which provided a good measurement for damage caused by the nuclear bombs. Third and finally, both cities contained strategic personnel and installations; Hiroshima was the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and 5th Division with 40,000 Japanese combatants stationed within the city's limit, and Nagasaki contained two large Mitsubishi armament factories and many other medium-to-small workshops and plants providing vital war components for Japan's war machine. In both cities, as with other Japanese cities, these targets were mixed in with civilian homes, schools, and temples. For example, at least 54% of the deaths in Hiroshima were combatants and slave laborers while 72% of the deaths in Nagasaki were war industry employees and slave laborers.
The vast majority of the people say that the atomic bombs actually saved many lives in the long run because it prevented the invasion of Japan. After the bombs, Japan wanted to surrender, but on one condition. Their leader had to stay in charge. But America said that the leader could stay in power, but had to take orders from American soldiers placed in Japan. America then invaded Japanese island Kyūshū, so they could do that. This was called Operation Olympic. More people would have been killed on both sides in a full battle in Japan. Some say that the bombings were not necessary. People still argue about this. No nuclear weapon has ever been used in combat since August 9, 1945.
The decision to use nuclear weapons on Japan was made after an analysis showed that more than a million people—combatants of both nations and civilians—would die if Japan was invaded by Allied forces. The nuclear bombings, while shocking and unprecedented, actually paled in comparison with the Operation Meetinghouse firebombing of Tokyo on March 9/10, 1945, which killed 100,000 civilians and destroyed 16 square miles in a single night. Had it not been for the nuclear weapons, the U.S. would have resorted to firebombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki which would have caused equal amount of damage, but did not produce the shock value that nuclear weapons have. In addition, doing nothing or waiting it out for surrender was not an option because hundreds of thousands of combatants, civilians, and prisoners of war were dying each month in Japanese-occupied lands.
Partly because of the atomic bombings, after the war Japan adopted the Three Non-Nuclear Principles. These principles said that Japan could not create or try to get nuclear weapons.